|Vocabulary of special numismatic terms.|
|Vocabulary of special numismatic terms. Page 2|
|Vocabulary of special numismatic terms. Page 3|
Vocabulary of special numismatic terms.
ALLOY (in coin production) - an addition of a less valuable metal to a basic precious metal when composing the material for coin mintage (addition of silver or copper to gold, of copper to silver). The resulting material is called alloyed gold or silver, and the weight of the material used for production of a coin is called "alloy weight" of this coin.
"ANDREYEVSKIE" ("ANDREW'S") CHERVONETZES (CHERVONTZY) (colloquial) - ordinary or double chervonetz of 1749—1753, bearing an image of St. Andrew on the reverse.
AFFINAGE - a process of separation of precious metals (gold, platinum and silver) from admixtures or from each other.
BANKING COIN - a title for high-standard silver coins of 1 1/2 rouble, 1 rouble, 3/4 rouble, 50 and 25 kopecks. This title can be met in some governmental documents of the XVIII-XX centuries. Somentimes 25 - kopeck coins were treated not like a bank coin, but like a small change.
ASSIGNATIONS (BANKNOTES) - the first Russian paper money secured by copper coins. A. were being issued by the government from 1769 to 1843 and were considered as legal tender till the end of 1847.
BILLON - 1) a coin of not full value, a small change coin of low-standard silver or of non-precious metals; 2) low-standard silver used for striking small change coins.
COAL TOKENS - metallic tokens for calculating labour of serf peasants who supplied metallurgical factories and mints with charcoal, ore and lime. C.T. were used in Russia in the XVIII and XIX centuries. Sometimes C.T. were fabricated by overstriking copper coins with special stamps, although usually smooth metallic blanks were used for their production.
COIN REGALIA - the exclusive right of a state for mintage and emission of coins.
COIN ROLL - characteristic of a coin determining its standard weight depending on its denomination. C.R. is expressed by the total face value of the coins of various denominations struck of a certain quantity of metal, for instance: "19 roubles and 75 25/81 kopecks out of a pound of alloyed silver" or "12 roubles and 80 kopecks out of a pood (16 kilograms) of copper". C.R. was fixed for each new coin issue by a special governmental act.
COIN TYPE - totality of pictures and inscriptions covering the obverse and the reverse sides of a coin. C.T. of the obverse or reverse side of a coin is composed of main and additional elements. The main elements of C.T. on Russian coins of the XVIII — beginning of the XX centuries are: a portrait and monograms of the emperor; state and local emblems; images of St. Andrew, horseman with a spear, a monument (on memorial coins), allegorical figures (one-headed eagle, God of War Mars, tsar's regalia, military equipment). To the additional elements of C.T. on Russia coins the following may be attributed: inscriptions containing the name and the title of the emperor, information about coin roll or composition of alloy, any declaration, etc.; denomination of a coin; date of mintage; mintmark; marks of the engraver and mintmaster, representations of crowns, wreaths and garlands. Alongside the main and additional elements of C.T. coins could bear decorative elements: rims (linear, dotted, cogged and patterned), frames and cartouches; ribbons, rosettes, asterisks, leaves, vignettes, linear signs, ets. When the main element of C.T. is missing on one of the side of a coin (or on both sides) its role is performed by an additional element dominating on the coin's surface. On the correlation of the main elements or of the additional elements performing their part on the sides of a coin depends which side of a coin shall be considered the obverse or the reverse.
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